Dr. Sunjoo Advani

Dr. Sunjoo Advani, President,
International Development of Technology b.v.

Dr. Sunjoo Advani is an aerospace engineer with 35 years experience in flight simulation development and operates the company International Development of Technology. Previously, an assistant professor in the Aerospace Department at the Delft University of Technology, his research focused on pilot-vehicle interactions and manual flying. In 2009, he founded the International Committee for Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes, which defined the requirements for Upset Prevention and Recovery Training. These are embodied in ICAO Manual 10011, and recent regulations, including EASA. Currently, he supports several airlines in developing their UPRT programs and applying UPRT to their pilots and instructors. 

Is UPRT Killing My Simulator?

UPRT was introduced as a safety enhancement to mitigate Loss of Control In-Flight. To meet CS-FSTD(A) of 2018 or FAA Part 60 Change 2, simulators require UPRT capabilities, including enhancing the flight model and IOS pages. Aerodynamic data package enhancements include the representation of stall characteristics. While the FAA requires pilot- flown recoveries from full stalls, the EASA regulation requires training up to the “approach-to- stall”. In both cases, a true representation of the characteristics of modern swept-wing airliners requires the creation of the stall buffet, or “deterrent buffet”. These vibrations can be very heavy at times. While the data packages may be similar, the devices are clearly not.

How much buffet is required for reasonable training, and for how long? What is the long-term impact on the training device?

One method of dealing with this problem is to design UPRT into the FSTD from the start. This is the methodology adopted by the Avion Group with the support of IDT. The Avion A320 device has been developed from the ground up to incorporate these capabilities throughout. This particular FSTD integrates all systems on board the device, which would make such a design more challenging for UPRT than conventional simulators.

Another way of mitigating the risk on the device is to implement training programs that focus much more on awareness and prevention training prior to any forms of recovery training. These pre-tested exercises can be embedded through the IOS. This ensures that the value of the skills and knowledge training is maximized, while lowering the exposure of the simulator to heavy buffet-induced vibrations. Additionally, pro-active monitoring for preventive maintenance through smart sensors can ensure limits are not exceeded.

The presentation will address the simulator training requirements for UPRT training, the design criteria for FSTD’s, and explain how an FSTD manufacturer can address these issues. It will also present some results from a survey of industry users. Furthermore, some suggestions for enhanced upset awareness training will be given.